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⚙️ Network Hardware


- Ethernet (cables)
- Switch
- Network Inferference Cards
- Bridge
- Wireless Access Points
- Hardware Firewall
- Modem
- Gateway
- Hub
- Server
- Client Devices

Features and functions#

- Hub (Repeater)
└── Connects devices in the network together, allowing them to communicate. Allows you to connect other devices. Often known as multi-port repeaters a message sent from one workstation is broadcast to all the other ports on a hub. Specified by transmission speed. This is not secure as it floods the information coming in to all the other ports.

- Switch
└── Same as a hub, but switch enables connection setting and terminating based on need. (data link layer) - transfers data between nodes. No broadcasting, it goes direct. Switch understands MAC addresses. Provides dedicated bandwidth. On a busy network, choose a switch.

- Router
└── Switching device for networks. Able to route network packets based on their addresses to other network devices. Also used for internet access points. Routers form backbone of the internet access enabling globally connectivity remote networks. Routers deal with IP addresses.

- Firewall
└── Hardware firewall a physical appearance that is deployed to enforce a network boundary. All network links cross through the firewall which enables it to perform inspection of inbound and outbound network traffic.

└── Hardware component, typically circuit board or chip, which is installed on a computer so that it can connect to a network. Can come integrated and expansion. NIC cards have a unique MAC address assigned to them programmed into the ROM. The address is a 48 bit in length and listed in hexadecimal.

- Cabling
└── Used to connect and transfer data and information between computers, routers, switches and storage area networks. Essentially the carrier or media through which data flows.


Cabling twisted pair
Copper based category 6. Limited cable length run around 100m uses RJ 45.
- Cheap, easy to work with
- Max. 100m length, interference
- UTP has twisted cable STP has foil as insulation
- STP is thicker and more expensive
Fibre Optic
Glass and plastic threads. Transmits data in the form of modulated light waves. Much higher data transmission rate. No issues with interference. Used for long distance cable runs.
- High data transmission rates, no issues with EM interference, long distance
- Difficult to work with, fragile, no excessive bends.

- Server
└── A powerful computer that provides various shared resources to workstations and other servers on a network. Used to centrally control and manage network and their resources. Specialised roles: Web Server, file server, Mail Server.

- Clients Devices
└── Computer, Phone, Laptop, Printer

Hub, switch and router

Hub acts as the dumbest as it floods the other ports,
Switch just routes traffic,
Router is the smartest.

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