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⚠️ Threats

Threats can be technical and non-technical.

Threats to an organisation#


- Viruses
- Ransomware
- Phishing
- Denial of service
- Hacking

Non Technical#

- Human error
- Natural disasters

Facts & Figures#

Up to 88% of UK companies have suffered breaches in the last 12 months.
One small business in the UK is hacked every 19 seconds

Technical and Non-technical threats#

- Botnet - Technical Threats - Botnet - A Botnet is a set of Internet connected comuters, each running one or more bots. Malware infects botnets, allowing hackers to take control of them. Botnets can be used to launch DDos attacks, steal data, send spam and give the attacker access to the computer and its links.
- Denial of service - Technical Threats - Dos and DDos - Attack on a service (eg. website) that prevents other users from accessing it and distrupts its normal operation.
- Distributed Denial of Serice - Technical Threats - Dos and DDos - Where several systems flood the bandwidth or resources of a targeted system such as a web server in order to distrupt normal service.
- Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) - Technical Threats - Hacking - An Injection attack in which malicious scripts are inserted into trustworthy websites.
- Password cracking software - Technical Threats - Hacking - This can use both dictionary and brute force methods to try and obtain passwords.
- SQL Injection - Technical Threats - Hacking - SQL code is used in databses to query the data. It could be used as a data input on a form linked to a databsae resulting in errors or unintended results.

Another form of technical threat is Malware. Malware is malicious software that is used to break into a computer device. It can come in forms of: Viuses, Key loggers, Trojans, Remote access trojans, Ransomware, Worms, Spyware, Adware

- Virus - Computer programs that are found in other files. (they need a host). They need human interaction such as opening a file to be activated, they can replicate once activates and they can cause harm by removing or altering data.
- Keyloggers - This is monitoring software that is used to record keystrokes. It can be used to steal usernames and passwords.
- Trojans - Appear to be legitimate but are actually malware. It cannot replicate and users are tricked into downloaded it. Remote access trojans builds a way into an infected device providing access for a hacker without the user or security program realising.
- Ransomware - Blackmails a user into paying ransom to a hacker. Some ransomware just uses intimidation but others will encrypt documents until the user pays the ransom
- Worms - Similar to a virus but is self contained and do not need a host. It does not need human interaction to be activated for replicate. It spreads through networks.
- Spyware - Records user activity such as visited websites and sends that data to a hacker
- Adware - Not the same as malware because it does not have a malicious intenent to made users or their systems. It can have a negative effect because of avertising
- Malicious spam - This arrives in the form of emails or SMS messages, they contain links or attachments which will install malware on your device if clicked or opened. Phishing, Vishing, Spear phishing, smishing and Buffer overflow - Phishing - A method of sending mass emails requesting confidential information such as bank account numbers - It can also encourage people to visit fake websites.
- Vishing - A type of phishing where cammers pose as bank employees or other financial service employees to convince people to exchnge information over the phone. - Voice phishing
- Spear phishing - A method of sending emails to specific individuals. They may contain a malicious software. - Pharming - A form of cyber attack in which a user is redirected from legitimate website to a bogus one. The fake website will often resemble the real one.
- Smishing - Known as SMS phishing. A phishing cybersecurity attack carried out over mobile text mesaging.
- Buffer overflow - This happens when the amount of data stored in the memory bufer exceeds the buffer's storage space. For example, if someone sent loads of files to a printer, the printer's buffer storage would become full.

Non - technical threats#

Human Error#

This was a significant contributory factor in 95% of all breaches according to a IBM report.

Malicious employees#

Also known as an inside threat that teals, damages or exposes internal data or systems

Natural disasters#

Disasters such as earthquake and floods can distrupt dusinesses proceses by distrupting technology and infrastructure.